Enzymes Convert Any Blood Type to O

Several major Type O blood shortages, including crises at the National Institutes of Health highlight the importance of creating a versatile blood type. In the rare instance that someone receives a transfusion of the wrong type, deadly reactions (caused by sugar molecules on the surfaces of red blood cells) can cause the immune system to go haywire.
Henrik Clausen, a professor at the University of Copenhagen in Denmark, published research in Nature describing a way to convert any kind of blood into Type O — the type that almost anyone can tolerate. He discovered enzymes that shear the problem-causing sugars from the surfaces of A, B and AB type red blood cells. Produced by bacteria, the molecular machines could theoretically turn any kind of blood into Type O.

What are some careers in chemistry ?

The career options in chemistry are practically endless! However, your employment options depend on how far you have taken your education. A 2-year degree in chemistry won’t get you very far. You could work in some labs washing glassware or assist at a school with lab preparation, but you wouldn’t have much advancement potential and you could expect a high level of supervision. A college bachelor’s degree in chemistry (B.Sc) opens up more opportunities. A 4-year college degree can be used to gain admittance to advanced degree programs (e.g., graduate school, medical school, law school). With the bachelor’s degree, you can get a bench job, which would allow you to run equipment and prepare chemicals. A bachelor’s degree in chemistry or education (with a lot of chemistry) is necessary to teach at the high school level. A master’s degree in chemistry, chemical engineering, or other field opens up far more options. A terminal degree, such as a Ph.D. or M.D., leaves the field wide open. In the United States you need at least 18 graduate credit hours to teach at the college level (preferable a Ph.D.). Most scientists who design and supervise their own research programs have terminal degrees. Chemistry is a part of biology and physics, plus, there are lots of categories of chemistry! Here’s look at some of the career options related to chemistry: 

Environmental Law 
Patent Law 
Technical Writing 
Software Design 
Space Exploration 
Government Policy 
Forensic Science 
Ceramics Industry 
Plastics Industry 
Paper Industry 
Military Systems 
This list isn’t remotely complete.U can work chemistry into any industrial, educational, scientific, or governmental field. Chemistry is a very versatile science. Mastery of chemistry is associated with excellent analytical and mathematical skills. Students of chemistry are able to solve problems n think things through.

Subject Enrichment – Chemistry-SUB ATOMIC PARTICLES

In physics, subatomic particles are the particles composing nucleons and atoms. There are two types of subatomic particles: elementary particles, which are not made of other particles, and composite particles. Particle physics and nuclear physics study these particles and how they interact.
Elementary particles of the Standard Model include-
• Six “flavours” quarks: up, down, bottom, top, strange, and charm;
• Six types of leptons: electron, electron neutrino, muon, muon neutrino, tauon, tauon neutrino;
• Twelve gauge bosons (force carriers): the photon of electromagnetism, the three W and Z bosons of the weak force, and the eight gluons of the strong force.
Composite subatomic particles (such as protons or atomic nuclei) are bound states of two or more elementary particles. For example, a proton is made of two up quarks and one down quark, while the atomic nuclei of helium-4 is composed of two protons and two neutrons. Composite particles include all hadrons. These, in turn, are composed of baryons (e.g., protons and neutrons) and mesons (e.g., pions and kaons).
There are hundreds of known subatomic particles. Most are either the result of cosmic rays interacting with matter, or have been produced by scattering processes in particle accelerators.

SUBJECT ENRICHMENT – 3-Exotic atom,muonic atom , Hadronic atom & onium..

An exotic atom is an otherwise normal atom in which one or more sub-atomic particles have been replaced by other particles of the same charge.
In a muonic atom, an electron is replaced by a muon, which, like the electron, is a lepton
In a pionic atom , an electron is replaced by pion.
A hadronic atom is an atom in which one or more of the orbital electrons has been replaced by a hadron.[3] Possible hadrons include mesons such as the pion or kaon, yielding a mesonic atom
An onium (plural: onia) is the bound state of a particle and its antiparticle. The classic onium is positronium, which consists of an electron and a positron bound together as a long-lived metastable state.
The muon (from the Greek letter mu (μ) used to represent it) is an elementary particle similar to the electron, with negative electric charge and a spin of 1⁄2. Together with the electron, the tauon, and the three neutrinos, it is classified as a lepton. Muons have a mass of 105.7 MeV/c2, which is about 200 times the mass of the electrons.
a hadron (pronounced /ˈhædrɒn/, from the Greek: ἁδρός, hadrós, “stout, thick”) is one of the two groups of particles (the other being lepton). Hadron is the group containing all particles that interact with the strong force. Hadrons are held together by the strong force, similarly to how molecules are held together by the electromagnetic force. All hadrons are made up of quarks. There are two subsets of hadrons: baryons and mesons; the most well known baryons are protons and neutrons.
a pion (short for pi meson; denoted π) is any of three subatomic particles: π0, π+ and π−. Pions are the lightest mesons and play an important role in explaining low-energy properties of the strong nuclear force.